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Metaphysics Refuting Relativism




Metaphysics Refuting Relativism


   I Mackies attack on the objectivity of values

    Mackie is interested in refuting the idea of values as objective entities out there in the fabric of our world; a refutation seemingly entailing a relative and subjective status for values. He begins his attack by taking on the Hypothetical/Categorical distinction in Kantian imperatives. Countering the distinction is important for Mackies argument because while the hypothetical imperative is clearly subjective to the want of certain ends, the Categorical one makes a claim for objectivity. He shows how any categorical imperative stands bare in front of questioning without presenting a further reason; that is, do not lie can attempt to be a categorical right yet by universalizing it we expose an hypothetical motivating conditional behind it: If you do not want everyone to lie all the time, thus making the world a treacherous place to live in, then you should not lie. By this move Mackie strengthens a claim for subjectivity against Kantian claims of objectivity. It follows that if we manage to make an imperative that does not aspire to any end, we have subjectively invented a value.
Mackie goes on to present the current prevalence of the claim for objectivity as deeply ingrained in our language and thought. By acknowledging the present condition of moral thought he turns to offer an Error Theory aimed at explaining and then discarding the false notion of the objective authority of values.

    The argument from relativity holds as its premise the mere fact that there are vast differences in moral codes across cultural and historical contexts. The idea Mackie is promoting is that unlike the case of facts, in the case of values disagreement proves that there is no objective right and wrong. Meaning that values are a representation of a way of life and are subjective to it. In pressing his argument forward Mackie makes two questionable statements. The first, regarding the stark distinction he makes between factual and evaluative disagreements is questionable on the grounds that he attributes inadequate evidence (p.267) to disagreements on facts, but claims that it is hardly plausible to interpret moral disagreements in the same way. It is indeed implausible only if you deny that values stem from beliefs. But if you acknowledge that beliefs heavily influence our evaluative concepts, it is plausible to say that moral disagreements can stem from seemingly contradicting or inadequate evidence, leaving the attacked objectivity in tact under the Realist view that variations only prove that many are not getting it right. It being the objective way true morality is. The second questionable statement he makes is with regards to the way in which people make their judgments: he claims people do not judge actions as if they exemplify some general principle (p.268) to which there is a widespread adherence, but rather by some sort of moral sense or intuition. Here it can be argued that what he disqualifies as intuitions are in fact direct reflections of widely agreed principles of morality; again, not severely harming the moral claim for objectivity. People can be reacting to an attack on implications of a principal moral value if they perceive even implicit violations of it.

    The second main premise of his attack is the argument from Queerness. Here he attacks the notion of objectivity from two main directions: On the epistemic front he portrays the difficulty in even beginning to describe what would make us know that an action is wrong; on the metaphysical front he asks what is the actual causality that makes a certain action cruel in itself. From the apparent queerness of both of the above enterprises, Mackie concludes that values cannot be objective entities that are out there for us to try and accurately describe, but rather that we subjectively make them. This subjectivity would entail moral relativism in as much as no subjective claim is better, or truer, then another. He acknowledges the fact that the objectivity of values sounds far less queer in ordinary moral language, but reclaims the prevalence of the claim for objectivity as ingrained in our language and thought, as the reason for that. The entire argument from Queerness can be argued against as being a case of a philosopher looking for the wrong thing in the wrong place. It can be said to be obvious that values are an outcome of human interaction, therefore by definition an internally human phenomenon not to be confused with natural phenomenon that we can actually point our fingers at out there. I would here claim that since values are internally human, the objective moral truth would be the one that best fits human needs, even if we are still far from figuring out what might that be. Even though he acknowledges the objection that adds many partners in the crime of queerness such as numbers, substance, identity, or essence, he does not adequately tackle the suggestion of a special place for abstract concepts, he only claims to be able to salvage some and discard the rest.

    He moves to wrap up the argument by providing more explanatory arguments in the form of tracing back patterns of objectification in order to back up his error theory. The argument goes about showing how a process of projection and objectification occurs when moral values are subject to the Pathetic fallacy. He stresses the function of society as creating a process of internalization by which the individual accepts an external authority, that authority being no more objective than the mere decrees of his society. He even goes as far as supplying us with a motive for our error in that as far as we naturally aspire to have authoritative values, the illusion of objective validity does the trick. Before concluding that there are no objective values Mackie answers the Aristotelian tradition by accepting both of its claims with a large grain of salt. After distinguishing the two directions of fit he refers first to the descriptive direction as simply naming what seems to be satisfying desires, warning that an attempt to describe such a thing would run into a dead end in the face of vast diversity. Then on the prescriptive direction he stresses that saying what ought to be good is valid only when acknowledged as subjective.
Mackies argument aims at establishing moral relativism by stripping Realism of the objective basis of moral grounding. A general immediate response to his argument from the Realist side would be that diversity shows widespread confusion but does not as much as touch the objectivity of values. The argument from queerness would be dropped as not too impressive for all it eventually does is show why Philosophy is a complicated and sophisticated field. Out of more specific philosophical frameworks Davidson might insist that all communicators share by and large agreement, deeming the argument from diversity powerless. He might also acknowledge that objective values can sound like a queer proposition that is hard to trace out there but that this is only due to the Holistic structure of contingent abstract concepts. Putnam, adhering to the law of the excluded middle and to an internally realist perspective, would also counter the argument from relativity on the grounds that many false theories that seem to fit the world are acceptable as false without harming the claim for one true theory. The fact that our assessments are clouded by our point of view only grants diversity of assessments as much as diversity of points of view but does not carry any claim for truth; the fact that everyone is still running around in circles, unable to find true objective values, does not prove that there arent any, it just proves people have a hard time trying to be objective.
Even Rorty, from a somewhat relativistic point of view, would disagree with Mackie. His disagreement would stem from his pragmatic view by which it is obvious that there are no values out there. Having said that, Rorty might take values to be a strictly human enterprise, deeming any queer attempts to look for them out there ridiculously futile. From a pragmatic standpoint the fact that values are a byproduct of human interaction grants objectivity to values shared by the whole group (Humans, for that matter), for there is an obliteration of the distinction between what is and what ought to be. If a theoretical moral system that is found to fit all parties involved does not render objectivity, the problem is in the term. A unified human perspective of what is found to be the ideal morality would satisfy the Realist as being the true one, even if the Relativist insists on calling it subjective to our lights; because the whole venture of values is restricted to us in the first place. It seems that unless Mackie turns to God, which he most certainly does not, he is entering a trap of definition, for if theoretically humans could, as one group, devise their ideal moral values, those values would be as objective as you can get.
In conclusion, I find mackies attack futile and off the mark. As far as securing moral relativism I think he fails by concentrating on irrelevant arguments that do not carry him too far. To the fact that there are various moral codes in different cultures and times I would concede and still maintain that there must be one moral system, whether we found it or not, that surpasses the rest in its benefits to human life; that very system evaluated in its effects on humans as one whole group, even if followed by a close second, would be the ultimately true objective moral system. Though obviously constructed by our lights, it is as objective as we can get without inventing God or searching for Platos Forms. Mackie here enters the realm of a problematic technical definition: if each makes its own morality, each is being subjective; but if one morality is theoretically found to best fit all, what or who would it be subjective to? To the fact that there are no independent entities of values out there I would concede and still maintain that values are an outcome of human interaction, therefore only discernable within the queer human phenomenon. I do think that values originate from certain basic human traits that are universally true: the general dislike of pain, and the general aversion from loosing a loved one or ones own life. Those traits serving as motives are then shaped by beliefs into values and rules of conduct. From that point on, it is only logical fallacies or false beliefs that can be found as responsible for disagreements. Accepting all humans as an arch-group that is the only manifestation, and therefore the only standard, of the moral phenomenon deems radical diversity as misunderstanding based on conflicting beliefs (some of which are still irresoluble), and queerness as one of the inherent traits of our conceptual thought; leaving the quest for the true and objective ideal morality open for us as a distinctly human enterprise.
The point I am insisting on is that since Humans can be recognized to share a vast superordinate identity, therefore sharing basic needs, it is plausible to envision a moral system that would best benefit all; holding Right and wrong as respectively standing in direct relation to the preservation or violation of the initial human basic needs. Though many cultural differences must first be reconciled, acknowledging that basic needs necessitate values that are shaped by beliefs grants the feasibility of rectifying differences that stem from false beliefs which can be proven as false; allowing a suspension of judgment and toleration for values that stem from conflicting beliefs that are currently irresoluble. That very system that could provide the greatest benefit to the greatest number would have to forbid individual sacrifice for the greater good, for that goes against the individual interest in values in the first place. That system that would allow any freedom as long as it is harmless to others would be the realists right or objectively best moral system.

   II Williamss account of The Truth in Relativism

    Williams argues that the truth in relativism lies in acknowledging that systems of belief, radically different than our own to the extent that they do not pose a real option for us, cannot be judged as true or false from our standpoint. He distinguishes an inconsistent form as the one introducing non-relative moral claims into a relativistic framework. In the inconsistent form three propositions are contingently made: right can only be understood as meaning right for a given society; this very rightness is to be understood in a functionalist manner (functionalism he later regards as mere tautological); and that therefore, it is wrong for others to intervene or to judge the values of a society which is not their own. The third proposition is the one Williams recognizes as inconsistent for its demand of tolerance that arises out of a non-relative moral claim. That is, if right is right for a given society, whos to say that it is wrong for my society to interfere with another society? In the form of relativism he finds true and consistent, moral judgments across a notional barrier are merely empty of any substance. Aside from the removal of the prescriptive non-relative issue of toleration, his relativism holds the same threat over Realism as the inconsistent form; namely, the impossibility of declaring one cross-cultural ethical truth.
The distinction between real and notional confrontations purports to separate the cases in which moral judgments cross-culturally are valid from when they are void. A real confrontation is the case in which members of one system of belief hold a common locus of disagreement with another in a way that allows them to rationally reason between the two and choose whether to abide to their own culture or agree with the other. Williams emphasizes that in order for an option to present a real option it must allow both going over to it, and retaining a hold of reality. Notional confrontation, on the other hand, is the case in which an option to go over to another system of belief is not possible while retaining the two requirements of a real option. By this distinction he claims to separate the case of a real confrontation, where there is enough common grounds for judgments to validly apply back and forth, from the case of a notional confrontation, where the differences are too radical to allow putting ourselves in their shoes; therefore deeming any attempt to pass judgment virtually irrelevant. He attempts to show that for a question demanding a yes/no answer, two systems that are in real confrontation and answer contradicting answers share a common and arguable locus of disagreement. In the case of two systems standing in notional confrontation, on the other hand, the contradicting answer cannot be reconciled or judged to be right either way, for each system faces a different set of beliefs that deem them ethically incommensurable .
Williams claims that notional confrontations can only occur in the case of values but not in the case of beliefs. This claim supposes that in the case of beliefs there is a real confrontation, a clear factual point of disagreement that is open for evaluations; while on the case of values a member of a certain system of beliefs cannot be ethically judged by an outsider that does not share the members belief. He therefore grants immunity to the ethical stand of a member of any system, separate from the evaluation of their beliefs.
It is precisely this stark distinction between beliefs and values that I find highly disturbing. While it is true that if this distinction is held a member of another system, with which we are at a notional confrontation, cannot be judged as acting wrong as long as he acts in accordance with their beliefs, the crux of the matter is precisely the rightness or wrongness of the beliefs. To hold values as distinctly separate from beliefs is to disregard the immediate connection between the two; beliefs shape values. Any evaluative notion rests precisely on what one takes to be the case; what one takes to be the case are their beliefs.
It is possible to say that according to his beliefs a Samurai was right in committing suicide in order to compensate for a failure, yet values do not stand alone. In order to fully evaluate the Samurais action we must consider the beliefs that lead him to accept failure as a reason for suicide. If we find that the Samurai has been holding a false belief, it deems the consecutive values as contingently false. The Realist stand that I am supporting against Williamss relativism is one by which beliefs and values are holistically interconnected. It means that if false beliefs promote a value system that is in accordance with those false beliefs, the whole system of beliefs and values stands on a false foundation.
It follows that the original distinction between notional and real confrontations collapses as meaningless. In the notional case, Williams is promoting a stand by which values are sanctioned under the beliefs that produce them; if we do not share those beliefs we are supposed to be unable to judge the ethical actions that follow. But why is that? If a member of any given society is considered to act right because they act according to their own beliefs we must turn to assess their beliefs; if we find that the beliefs of the system are false (even if only in historical hindsight), it follows that though the individual thought he or she were acting right the foundations upon which their values stand deem both the system and their actions as wrong.
In conclusion, I find human beings to be a group that shares by far more similarities than differences. The need for food, the need for shelter, the need for fulfillment, the need for freedom; all basic factors that are the reducible source and aim of any ethical system. I find values to be directly shaped by beliefs. And I find beliefs to be such that in attempting to fit the world, emerge as either right or wrong, excluding the middle.
From that standpoint it seems that notional and real are merely two different places for disagreement: the former as disagreeing about beliefs, and the latter as disagreeing about the application of beliefs into values. I therefore hold that whenever two cultures would answer conflicting answers to the same question one of the following cases would be the reason: If they are holding the same belief, one is committing a logical fallacy in applying their belief into their value system. And if a conflicting belief is the source of their disagreement, either one is simply wrong and the other is right, or both may yet to have found the right belief, in which case they are both wrong.
Aside from healthy individual variations in specificities of fulfillment and the likes, I do not find a radical evaluative disagreement that could not be traced back to a false belief in at least one of the disagreeing sides. I acknowledge that certain beliefs are still far from being verifiable (where we face irresoluble disagreements); a fact that obligates us to practice tolerance in regards to different positions that are speculatively held wherever we lack evidence. Yet our current lack of evidence does not deem neither facts nor values as relative, all it entails is a temporary suspension of judgment pending new evidence.


Ohad Maiman